At the end of BOOT, we call ABORT which triggers our main loop,
which is in lblmain. It's very simple: Initialize input buffer,
then call INTERPRET.
INTERPRET itself is very simple: repeatedly call RUN1 (run one
RUN1 implements this logic:
1. Read a word from input.
2. Is it a number literal? Put it on the stack.
3. No? Look it up in the dictionary.
4. Found? Execute.
5. Not found? Error.
A forth binary is, in its vast majority, a big dictionary of
words. The dictionary is a list of entries, the address of its
last entry being kept in CURRENT. A dictionary entry has this
- Xb name. Arbitrary long number of character (but can't be
bigger than input buffer, of course).
- 2b previous entry
- 1b name size + IMMEDIATE flag (7th bit)
- The word content (see DTC explanation below)
The previous entry field is the address of the previous dict
entry, which is used when iterating over the dict.
The size + flag indicate the size of the name field, with the
7th bit being the IMMEDIATE flag.
The Direct Threaded Code model
Forths come in different flavors with regards to their execution
model and Collapse OS is a Direct Threaded Code (DTC) forth.
This means that each word (except CODE words, which directly
begin with native code) begins with a jump or call to a "word
type" routine, which then does its thing, optionally using the
words Parameter Field (PF, that is, the memory area following
the word routine jump).
At the heart of all those word types is the "next" routine,
defined at lblnext in all ports. This is the "beating heart" of
our system. Whenever it's called, it increases IP by 2 and then
jumps to the word referenced at IP-2. In other words, it
"continues" along the path of the currently active stream of
eXecution Tokens (XT). See "Executing a XT word" below.
These are the word types of Collapse OS:
native: nothing is done, native code is executed directly.
xt: eXecution Tokens. CALL lblxt which pushes IP to RS, pop PS
(the PC pushed during the CALL) into IP and does "next".
cell: CALL lblcell, which is the same as lblnext on "regular"
forths. On forths having a register assigned to TOS, we have
to pop that value and "properly" push it back to PS.
does: CALL lbldoes, which pops the pushed addr, inc by 2 (this
is the DOES data address) and push it back. Then, take the
original addr value, dereference it (it's the address of DOES>),
then jump to it as we would with any other word. The DOES> addr
contains a regular word handler (generally a xt handler).
value: CALL lblvalue, which pops addr from PS, dereferences it,
then push the value back to PS, then continue to lblnext.
Executing a XT (eXecution Tokens) word
At its core, executing a word is simply jumping to its wordref
address. Then, we let the word do its things. Some words are
special, but most of them are of the XT type, and that's their
execution that we describe here.
First of all, at all time during execution, the Interpreter
Pointer (IP) points to the word we're executing next.
When we execute a XT word, the first thing we do is push IP to
the Return Stack (RS). Therefore, RS' top of stack will contain
a wordref to execute next, after we EXIT.
At the end of every XT word is an EXIT. This pops RS, sets IP to
it, and continues.
A XT word is simply a list of word addresses, but not all those
"tokens" are 2 bytes in length. Some tokens are special. For
example, a reference to (n) will be followed by an extra 2 bytes
number. It's the responsibility of the (n) word to advance IP
by 2 extra bytes.
To be clear: It's not (n)'s word type that is special, it's a
regular "native" word. It's the compilation of the (n) type,
done in LITN, that is special. We manually compile a number
constant at compilation time, which is what is expected in (n)'s
implementation. Similar special things happen in (br), (?br) and
For example, the word defined by ": FOO 345 EMIT ;" would have
an 8 bytes PF: a 2b ref to (n), 2b with $0159, a 2b ref to EMIT
and then a 2b ref to EXIT.
When executing this word, we first set IP to PF+2, then exec
PF+0, that is, the (n) reference. (n), when executing, reads IP,
pushes that value to PS, then advances IP by 2. This means that
when we return to the "next" routine, IP points to PF+4, which
next will execute. Before executing, IP is increased by 2, but
it's the "not-increased" value (PF+4) that is executed, that is,
EMIT. EMIT does its thing, doesn't touch IP, then returns to
"next". We're still at PF+6, which then points to EXIT. EXIT
pops RS into IP, which is the value that IP had before FOO was
called. The "next" dance continues...
In all supported arches, The Parameter Stack and Return Stack
tops are tracked by a register assigned to this purpose. For
example, in z80, it's SP and IX that do that. The value in those
registers are referred to as PS Pointer (PSP) and RS Pointer
The way those stacks are managed are arch-specific and opaque.
Our only "meta-access" to stacks are through SCNT and RCNT which
give us counts for each stacks.
In the code, many registers have special meaning, and it's
crucial to keep this in mind when reading or writing native
code. As written above, we reserve a register for PSP and RSP,
but also for IP (Interpreter Pointer). You can see what register
is reserved for what in the cpu-specific document of doc/code/.
With CPUs that have very few registers, we might end up using
memory for IP, but it greatly impacts speed.
With CPUs that have a lot of registers, we can reserve some for
stack elements. For example, on the z80, BC is reserved for PS'
Top Of Stack. It makes all of the native code a bit weird
because pushes and pops are no longer this clean, symmetrical
set of operations, but gains (both in speed and binary size) are
significant, especially with words that have a symmetrical stack
signature (same number of stack elements before and after
Stack underflow and overflow
When words pop and push from the stack, nothing stops them. If
the stack goes out of bounds, bad things happen.
When a pop results in the stack pointer going out of bounds,
it's a "stack underflow". We could check, in each native word,
whether the stack is big enough to execute the word, but these
checks are expensive.
Instead, what we do is that we check for stack underflow in the
INTERPRET loop after each EXECUTE, through the word "STACK?".
If SCNT < 0, it's a stack underflow.
Would a word like ": foo DROP 42 ;" trigger an underflow if
executed on an empty PS? Well, no. That's the tradeoff. In
exchange for simplicity and speed, we don't catch all underflow
We don't check RS for underflow because the cost of the check
is significant and its usefulness is dubious: if RS isn't
tightly in control, we're screwed anyways, and that, well
before we reach underflow.
Overflow condition happen when RS or PS outstep their bounds
during a push. That condition is not checked because it's too
expensive for what it's worth.
Overflow happens much less often than underflow. However, when
it happens, it can means that your RS gets overwritten and will
catastrophically crash your machine.
When you know you have a deep stack, or before you do fancy
recursion, make sure you know the state of your stack well.
You can use .S for this.
There are some core variables in the core system that are
referred to directly by their address in memory throughout the
code. The place where they live is configurable by the SYSVARS
constant in xcomp unit, but their relative offset is not.
SYSVARS occupy $60 bytes in memory in addition to driver mem-
ory, which typically follows SYSVARS.
This system is a bit fragile because every time we change those
offsets, we have to be careful to adjust all system variables
offsets, but thankfully, there aren't many system variables.
Here's a list of them:
+06 A register
+08 N register
+0a NL characters
CURRENT points to the last dict entry.
HERE points to current write offset.
IN> and INBUF: See "Input Buffer" below.
LN< is called whenever the stream needs to be fed with a new
line in IN(. Generally points to RDLN, but is overridden during
CURWORD is a 4 bytes buffer containing a reference to the word
last read with WORD. First byte is length, the next 2 are the
address to the character string, and the last is a "don't read"
IOERR: When an error happens during I/Os, drivers can set this
to indicate an error. For example, the AT28 driver sets this
when it detects write corruption. Has to be reset to zero man-
ually after an error.
NL is 2 bytes. NL> spits them, MSB first. If MSB is zero, it's
ignored. For example, $0d0a spits CR and then LF.
'KEY? and 'EMIT default to (key?) and (emit) but can be
overwritten to other routines.
The N register is like the A register but only accessible from
native code. You can then be sure that by using it you will not
break some high-level words.
'(wnf): see "Word Not Found override" in doc/usage.
DRIVERS section is reserved for recipe-specific drivers.
RESERVED sections are unused for now.
A Collapse OS binary is initialized by jumping to the first
address of its binary. This runs the "early initialization"
routine, written in native code. This does 2 things: initialize
PSP and RSP and then jump to BOOT.
Then, BOOT does this:
1. Initialize CURRENT and HERE.
2. Initialize system aliases and values in this way:
EMIT -> (emit)
KEY? -> (key?)
NL -> CRLF
3. Call INIT, which is system-specific. This usually
4. Print "Collapse OS"
5. Call ABORT. See Execution Model above for the rest.
The "main" routine
The "main" routine is Collapse OS "soft boot" entry point. It
simply resets the input buffer (so that an ABORT/QUIT ran during
a LOAD brings us back to a usable system) and runs the
This routine is anonymous because it's not meant to be called
directly. You call it through QUIT. It's only there because QUIT
is a low level word and "main" references high level words, so
QUIT needs to do a forward jump to it (see doc/bootstrap for
Input buffer (INBUF)
As indicated above, the Input Buffer lives in SYSVARS and is
$40 bytes in length (the value of LNSZ).
This buffer contains a stream of characters that, unlike
regular strings, is not sized. It is also not terminated by any
kind of character.
Words IN( and IN) indicate its bounds and IN> is a pointer (in
absolute address) pointing to the current character being read.
This buffer will generally be filled by RDLN and then consumed
by IN<. These words take care of not stepping out of bounds.
When you type characters in the prompt, it's RDLN that handles
it. When you type CR (or LF), it stops reading and begins
feeding IN<. If you type LNSZ characters without typing CR, an
additional CR will be fed to IN< after INBUF has gone through.
In rare occasions, you need to know when you've reached the end
of INBUF, for example in ED where some words read "rest of the
buffer". In these cases, you can use IN<? instead of IN< which,
when the end of INBUF is reached, instead of calling RDLN, will
simply return 0.
This page generated at 2023-12-05 21:05:04 from documentation in CollapseOS snapshot 20230427.